Although the Greeks lost the battle at Thermopylae, one small group of Spartansdelayed the advance of the Persian army long enough for the city of Athens to be evacuated and for the remaining Greek army to regroup and eventually to defeat the Persian invaders. A glorious defeat maybe, but the fact remained that the way was now clear for Xerxes to push on into mainland Greece. With their position now seemingly hopeless, and before their retreat was cut off completely, the bulk of the Greek forces were ordered to withdraw by Leonidas. of History, US Military Academy (CC BY-SA). ." The first mentioned Amphictyony centered on the cult of Demeter at the city Anthela in the locality of Thermopylae. Teaching Materials 1. The Persian invasion was a delayed response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece, which had been ended by the Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. The Greek forces included 300 Spartans and their helots with 2,120 Arcadians, 1,000 Lokrians, 1,000 Phokians, 700 Thespians, 400 Corinthians, 400 Thebans, 200 men from Phleious, and 80 Mycenaeans. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. We have prepared four lesson plans including classroom activities... Quiz. Cartwright, Mark. Encyclopedia.com. However, the date of retrieval is often important. The Battle on the plain of Marathon in September 490 BCE between... Leonidas was the Spartan king who famously led a small band of... Sparta was one of the most important Greek city-states throughout... Xerxes I (l. 519-465, r. 486-465 BCE), also known as Xerxes... One of the most effective and enduring military formations in ancient... A black-figure Calyx-Krater from Attica, c. 530 BCE. Ancient History, Place Names a pass in E Greece, between the cliffs of Mt. It is my duty to do it," she declares. As Herodotus claims in his account of the battle in book VII of The Histories, the Oracle at Delphi had been proved right when she proclaimed that either Sparta or one of her kings must fall. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Despite being greatly inferior in numbers, the Greeks held the narrow pass for three days with Spartan king Leonidas fighting a last-ditch defence with a small force of Spartans and other Greek hoplites. Thermopylae. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Laborers installing a Greek Ionic column at the Civil Courts Buildin... g in St. Louis, Missouri in 1928-1930. ." In antiquity its cliffs were by the sea, but silting has widened the distance to more than a mile. Cavalry, usually operating on the flanks of the main battle, were used to mop up opposing infantry put in disarray after they had been subjected to repeated salvos from the archers. Thermopylae definition, a pass in E Greece, between the cliffs of Mt. Articles 1. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. A narrow pass on the East-central coast of Greece adjacent to the Maliakos Gulf, northwest of Athens. Thermopylae (thərmŏp`ĭlē) [Gr.,=hot gates, from hot mineral springs nearby], pass, E central Greece, SE of Lamía, between the cliffs of Mt. in which a greatly outnumbered Greek army under Leonidas fought to the death to delay the advance of the Persians during their attempted conquest of Greece Battle of Thermopylae. (January 13, 2021). At Thermopylae and Salamis, ancient Greece, at the dawn of its glory, came together, stood strong, fought for and saved its freedom, its independence and the humanist core of a civilization now recognized as universal. The pass of Thermopylae, located 150 km north of Athens was an excellent choice for defence with steep mountains running down into the sea leaving only a narrow marshy area along the coast. The Battle of Thermopylae was an attack on Greece that arose as a result of Athens involvement in the Ionian revolt. It was the civilization of Greece, from the archaic period of the 8th/6th centuries BC to 146 BC. The Greeks would amass over 300 triremes and perhaps their main purpose was to prevent the Persian fleet sailing down the inland coast of Lokris and Boeotia. It was the site of the Battle of Thermopylae, at which the Spartan King Leonidas stood off, for a time, the Persian armies of Xerxes. Its name is derived from its hot sulphur springs. However, an unscrupulous traitor was about to tip the balance in favour of the invaders. Thermopylae - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/thermopylae, ELIZABETH KNOWLES "Thermopylae Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. The width of the pass allowed fewer allied, Athenian and Spartan soldiers, to fight off more Persian troops. . Wealth and resources seem an unlikely motive; other more plausible suggestions include the need to increase the prestige of the king at home or to quell once and for all a collection of potentially troublesome rebel states on the western border of the empire. The Greeks, fielding the largest hoplite army ever seen, won the battle and finally ended Xerxes’ ambitions in Greece. The Persian invasion was a delayed response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece, which had been ended by the Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. A narrow pass on the East-central coast of Greece adjacent to the Maliakos Gulf, northwest of Athens. Warfare & Battles in Ancient Greece. In 486 BCE, Xerxes I (r. 486-465 BCE) became king upon the death of Darius and massive preparations for invasion were made. [1] “Thermopylae,” Mark Cartwright, Ancient History Encyclopedia, accessed December 11, 2014 [2] Abbe Barthelemy, Travels of Anacharsis the Younger in Greece, During the Middle of the Fourth Century, Before the Christian Era (London, 1806), 200. At Thermopylae and Salamis, ancient Greece, at the dawn of its glory, came together, stood strong, fought for and saved its freedom, its independence and the humanist core of a civilization now recognized as universal. The battle took place simultaneously with the naval battle at Artemisium. In Western culture at least, it is the Greeks who are lauded for their performance in battle. Oeta and the Malic Gulf. Statue of Leonidas in Thermopylae! Battle at Thermopylae: Definition & Map | Study.com. Alps, great mountain system of S central Europe, c.500 mi (800 km) long and c.100 mi (160 km) wide, curving in a great arc from the Riviera coas…. Its name is derived from its hot sulphur springs. This suited the Persians as they could now continue unimpeded along the mountain path and arrive behind the main Greek force. As an interesting footnote: the important strategic position of Thermopylae meant that it was once more the scene of battle in 279 BCE when the Greeks faced invading Gauls, in 191 BCE when a Roman army defeated Antiochus III, and even as recent as 1941 CE when Allied New Zealand forces clashed with those of Germany. 1. Teaching Materials 1. Books 3. The Thermopylae pass was also the site of two other ancient battles. In a Greek myth is mentioned that Heracles had jump… Thermopylae - a famous battle in 480 BC; a Greek army under Leonidas was annihilated by the Persians who were trying to conquer Greece battle of Thermopylae Ellas , Greece , Hellenic Republic - a republic in southeastern Europe on the southern part of the Balkan peninsula; known for … In 490 BCE Greek forces led by Athens met the Persians in battle at Marathon and defeated the invaders. Definition. It was the site of the Battle of Thermopylae, at which the Spartan King Leonidas stood off, for a time, the Persian armies of Xerxes. The remaining hoplites, now trapped and without their inspirational king, were subjected to a barrage of Persian arrows until no man was left standing. Thermopylae (; Ancient and Katharevousa Greek: , Demotic: Θερμοπύλες : "hot gates") is a place in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity. Both ancient and modern writers have used the Battle of thermopylae as an example of the power of a patriotic army defending its native soil. It is my duty to do it," she declares. narrow land passage along the Malian Gulf in ancient Greece, from Greek thermos "hot" (from PIE root *gwher-"to heat, warm") + pylai, plural of pyle "gate; mountain pass, entrance into a region" (see pylon).In reference to nearby hot sulfur springs. Ancient Greece was a large area in the northeast of the Mediterranean Sea, where people spoke the Greek language.It was much bigger than the nation of Greece we know today. Early in the morning, the hoplites once more met the enemy, but this time Xerxes could attack from both front and rear and planned to do so but, in the event, the Immortals behind the Greeks were late on arrival. [intr.] Thermopylae - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. Caudine Forks name given to a narrow pass in the mountains near Capua, where the Roman army was defeated by the Samnites in 321 bc. Therefore, the Spartans, widely credited as being the best fighters in Greece and the only polis with a professional army, contributed only a small advance force of 300 hoplites (from an estimated 8,000 available) to the Greek defensive force, these few being chosen from men with male heirs. Spartans: A Captivating Guide to the Fierce Warriors of Ancient Greece... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Thermopylae was an excellent choice for defence with mountains running down into the sea leaving only a narrow pass along the coast. Map of the battle of marathon 490 bc greek double envelopment. Its name, meaning “hot Although the Persians had enjoyed the upper hand in previous contests during the recent Ionian revolt, the terrain at Thermopylae would better suit Greek warfare. Thermopylae 480 BC: Last stand of the 300, Gates of Fire: An Epic Novel of the Battle of Thermopylae, Thermopylae: The Battle That Changed the World. The Spartan king, on the third day of the battle, rallied his small force - the survivors from the original Spartan 300, 700 Thespians and 400 Thebans - and made a rearguard stand to defend the pass to the last man in the hope of delaying the Persians progress, in order to allow the rest of the Greek force to retreat or also possibly to await relief from a larger Greek force. The pass had also been fortified by the local Phokians who built a defensive wall running from the so-called Middle Gate down to the sea. The Battle of Thermopylae was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas I of Sparta, and the Achaemenid Empire of Xerxes I. This is also the place of cavernous entrances to Hades. Map Of Ancient Greece Thermopylae TEXT_9. The Greeks, though, were far from finished, and despite many states now turning over to the Persians and Athens itself being sacked, a Greek army led by Leonidas’ brother Kleombrotos began to build a defensive wall near Corinth. Encyclopedia.com. The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. In ancient times it was used as an entrance into Greece from the north. The performance of the defenders is also used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain as force multipliers and has become a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds. Source. When news of the invading force reached Greece, the initial Greek reaction was to send a force of 10,000 hoplites to hold position at the valley of Tempē near Mt. The battle would take on mythical status amongst the Greeks, but in reality it was merely the opening overture of a long war with several other battles making up the principal acts. A narrow pass on the East-central coast of Greece adjacent to the Maliakos Gulf, northwest of Athens. Map of Ancient Greece. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. ELIZABETH KNOWLES "Thermopylae Leonidas had stationed the contingent of Phokian troops to guard this vital point but they, thinking themselves the primary target of this new development, withdrew to a higher defensive position when the Immortals attacked. 13 Jan. 2021 . 13 Jan. 2021 . Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Khyber Pass begins about 10 miles outside the Pakistani city of Peshawar in the northwest frontier province and…, SOUTH PASS, located in Wyoming at the southern end of the Wind River Mountains, gained noteriety because the emigrant trail to Oregon and California…, The Asian region of Turkey, called Anadolu in Turkish. The Hot Gates is "the place of hot springs" and in Greek mythology it … The Persian infantry carried a lightweight (often crescent-shaped) wicker shield and were armed with a long dagger or battleaxe, a short spear, and composite bow. by Dept. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Thermopylae Wikipedia. Thermopyle synonyms, Thermopyle pronunciation, Thermopyle translation, English dictionary definition of Thermopyle. Definition of battle of thermopylae in the Definitions.net dictionary. The Persian forces also included the Immortals, an elite force of 10,000 who were probably better protected with armour and armed with spears. Map of the Battle of Thermopylae 480 BC | Greco persian wars . Oeta and the Gulf of Lamia: Persian defeat of the Spartans 480 b.c. "Thermopylae It derives its name from its hot sulphur springs. This is Sparta: Fierce warriors of the ancient world - Craig Zimmer. Related Content Warfare & Battles in Ancient Greece. In 480 BC,Xerxes I ,son of Darius I of the Achaemenid Persian . Although the Persian tactic of rapidly firing vast numbers of arrows into the enemy must have been an awesome sight, the lightness of the arrows meant that they were largely ineffective against the bronze-armoured hoplites. At close quarters, the longer spears, heavier swords, better armour, and rigid discipline of the phalanx formation meant that the Greek hoplites would have all of the advantages, and in the narrow confines of the terrain, the Persians would struggle to make their vastly superior numbers tell. During the Persian Wars, in 480 BCE, Persians attacked the Greeks at the narrow pass at Thermopylae that controlled the only road between Thessaly and central Greece. Just why Greece was coveted by Persia is unclear. Meanwhile at Artemision, the Persians were battling the elements rather than the Greeks, as they lost 400 triremes in a storm off the coast of Magnesia and more in a second storm off Euboea. Source. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Often simply hai pylai "the gates." See more. Images 13. It was the site of the Battle of Thermopylae, at which the Spartan King Leonidas stood off, for a time, the Persian armies of Xerxes. . Definition. "Hot gates" is also "the place of hot springs and cavernous entrances to Hades". Thermopylae is located in eastern central Greece on the only land route large enough to bear any significant traffic between Lokris and Thessaly.Passage from north to south along the east coast of the Balkan peninsula requires use of the pass. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. In ancient times it was used as an entrance into Greece from the north. Map of the Battle of Thermopylae 480 BC. "Battle of Thermopylae." After the battle, Xerxes ordered that Leonidas’ head be put on a stake and displayed at the battlefield. We have prepared four lesson plans including classroom activities... Quiz. All Free. 15 Jan 2021. The performance of the defenders is also used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain as force multipliers and has become a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds. (January 13, 2021). Warfare & Battles in Ancient Greece. Thermopylae in American English ( θərˈmɑpəˌli ) in ancient Greece, a mountain pass in Locris, near an inlet of the Aegean Sea: scene of a battle (480 b .c. ) a famous battle in 480 BC; a Greek army under Leonidas was annihilated by the Persians who were trying to conquer Greece Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. in which the Persians under Xerxes destroyed a Spartan army under Leonidas . In modern times, it has been used and abused as the yardstick for courageous sacrifice against the odds. The Greek forces, mostly Spartan, were led by Leonidas . Ephialtes, son of Eurydemos, a local shepherd from Trachis, seeking reward from Xerxes, informed the Persians of an alternative route --the Anopaia path-- which would allow them to avoid the majority of the enemy forces and attack their southern flank. Filters: All . The battle was fought for over three days, at … Thermopylae is located in eastern central Greece on the only land route large enough to bear any significant traffic between Lokris and Thessaly.Passage from north to south along the east coast of the Balkan peninsula requires use of the pass. . Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Thermopylae (; Ancient and Katharevousa Greek: , Demotic: Θερμοπύλες : "hot gates") is a place in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity.It derives its name from its hot sulphur springs. Images 13. Map of the Battle of Thermopylae 480 BC. Oeta and the Gulf of Lamia: Persian defeat of the Spartans 480 b.c. Thermopylae is a mountain pass near the sea in northern Greece which was the site of several battles in antiquity, the most famous being that between Persians and Greeks in August 480 BCE. Persia, with the largest empire in the world, was vastly superior in men and resources and now these would be fully utilised for a full-scale attack. It derives its name from its hot sulphur springs. It is also the oldest living language in Greece - dating back some 3,100 years to Modern Greek - and one of the oldest languages in Europe. Thermopylae is a mountain pass in terea or Central Greece, 210 km from Athens, and was a sacred place for ancient Greeks. Macedonia definition, an ancient kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, in S Europe: now a region in N Greece, SW Bulgaria, and the Republic of Macedonia. Both ancient and modern writers have used the Battle of thermopylae as an example of the power of a patriotic army defending its native soil. In 499 B.C. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 16 Apr 2013. The Hot Gates is "the place of hot springs" and in Greek mythology it … It was the site of the Battle of Thermopylae, at which the Spartan King Leonidas stood off, for a … en.wiktionary.2016 [proper] A narrow pass on the East-central coast of Greece adjacent to the Maliakos Gulf, northwest of Athens. Source. Battle at Thermopylae: Definition & Map | Study.com. Map of the Battle of Thermopylae 480 BC | Greco persian wars . 47, No. Thermopylae is a mountain pass near the sea in northern Greece which was the site of several battles in antiquity, the most famous being that between Persians and Greeks in August 480 BCE. Thermopylae is a mountain pass in terea or Central Greece, 210 km from Athens, and was a sacred place for ancient Greeks. It was the civilization of Greece, from the archaic period of the 8th/6th centuries BC to 146 BC. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 16 April 2013 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Oeta and the Gulf of Lamia: Persian defeat of the Spartans 480 b.c. The Greeks sent a no-nonsense reply by executing the envoys, and Athens and Sparta promised to form an alliance for the defence of Greece. Thermopylae (; Ancient and Katharevousa Greek: , Demotic: Θερμοπύλες : "hot gates") is a place in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity. After a series of political negotiations it became clear that the Persians would not gain victory through diplomacy and the two armies met at Plataea in August 479 BCE. Encyclopedia.com. Primarily known for … Thermopylae is a location in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity. The Battle of Thermopylae, 480 BC, was a battle in the second Persian invasion of Greece. Definitions 4. By the first years of the 5th century BCE, the Persian Achaemenid Empire, under the rule of Darius I (r. 522-486 BCE), was already expanding into mainland Europe and had subjugated Thrace and Macedonia. The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. It derives its name from its hot sulphur springs. Its name is derived from its hot sulphur springs. It was the site of the Battle of Thermopylae, at which the Spartan King Leonidas stood off, for a time, the Persian armies of Xerxes. It was here, then, in a 15-metre wide gap with a sheer cliff protecting their left flank and the sea on their right, that the Greeks chose to make a stand against the invading army. A narrow pass on the East-central coast of Greece adjacent to the Maliakos Gulf, northwest of Athens. DICTIONARY.COM Meanwhile, the Immortals now entered the fray behind the Greeks who retreated to a high mound behind the Phokian wall. Map Of Ancient Greece Thermopylae TEXT_9. The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Indeed, Spartan indifference is epitomised by Dieneces, who, when told that the Persian arrows would be so dense as to darken the sun, replied that in that case the Spartans would have the pleasure of fighting in the shade. Image: Angelos Fasois. https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/thermopylae, "Thermopylae Thermopylae. Lesson Pack. Source. Free men, in respect of their own laws, had sacrificed themselves in order to defend their way of life against foreign aggression. Thermopylae is a mountain pass near the sea in northern Greece which was the site of several battles in antiquity, the most famous being that between Persians and Greeks in August 480 BCE. The delegates to the Amphictiony were entitled Pylagorai(gate-assemblers), perhaps a reference to the local gates of Hades, since Demeter was a chthonic goddess in many of her older local cults. Thermopylae . Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. https://www.ancient.eu/thermopylae/. The Battle at Thermopylae was a battle at the pass of Thermopylae between the Greeks and the Persian Empire in 480 B.C.E. The Battle at Thermopylae was a battle at the pass of Thermopylae between the Greeks and the Persian Empire in 480 B.C.E. Thermopylae means "hot gates" in Greek and the name is related with its hot sulphur springs. Battle at Thermopylae: Definition & Map | Study.com. Having somewhere in the region of 80,000 troops at his disposal, the Persian king, who led the invasion in person, first waited four days in expectation that the Greeks would flee in panic. ." Thermopylae, a narrow pass on the east coast of Greece, also one of the best Greek army strategies used against the Persians in the Battle of Thermopylae. TEXT_7 TEXT_6. It takes its name from nearby sources of hot springs and the narrow and rough passages in and out of the area. It derives its name from its hot sulphur springs. On the first day, Xerxes sent his Median and Kissian troops, and after their failure to clear the pass, the elite Immortals entered the battle but in the brutal close-quarter fighting, the Greeks held firm. It was a brutal battle which the Greeks (consisting of the Spartans and their allies) lost. The relatively small size of the defending force has been explained as a reluctance by some Greek city-states to commit troops so far north, and/or due to religious motives, for it was the period of the sacred games at Olympia and the most important Spartan religious festival, the Karneia, and no fighting was permitted during these events. noun. Thermopylae n (in ancient Greece) a narrow pass between the mountains and the sea linking Locris and Thessaly: a defensible position on a traditional invasion route from N Greece; scene of a famous battle (480 b.c.) World Encyclopedia. ELIZABETH KNOWLES "Thermopylae Depots of equipment and supplies were laid, a canal dug at Chalkidike, and boat bridges built across the Hellespont to facilitate the movement of troops. 2, October 2000 TO MAKE A NEW THERMOPYLAE: HELLENISM, GREEK LIBERATION, AND THE BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE* By IAN MACGREGOR MORRIS In the eighteenth century, attitudes towards ancient Greece w changing from an antiquarian interest in literature and art, i wider emotional affiliation that permeated many aspects of arti political life. Silt accumulation has gradually widened the once-narrow pass. ." Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Retrieved January 13, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/thermopylae. The second day followed the pattern of the first, and the Greek forces still held the pass. Articles 1. Warfare & Battles in Ancient Greece. en.wiktionary.2016 [proper] A narrow pass on the East-central coast of Greece adjacent to the Maliakos Gulf, northwest of Athens. Last modified April 16, 2013. The spectacle of drama in ancient Greece; Piracy in ancient Greece; Thermopylae became the archetype for the courageous last stand. May 27, 2012 - Learn about the Battle at Thermopylae and discover the heroism of the Spartan king Leonidas and his men. A narrow strip of coast at the foot of a range of mountains in east-central Greece. The two opposing armies were essentially representative of the two approaches to Classical warfare - Persian warfare favoured long-range assault using archers followed up with a cavalry charge, whilst the Greeks favoured heavily-armoured hoplites, arranged in a densely packed formation called the phalanx, with each man carrying a heavy round bronze shield and fighting at close quarters using spears and swords. Battle of Thermopylae. Retrieved January 13, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/thermopylae. Thermopylae definition: (in ancient Greece ) a narrow pass between the mountains and the sea linking Locris and... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples The Persian invasion was a delayed response to the defeat of the first Persian invasi… Blogs 1. It was held at the narrow coastal pass of Thermopylae ("The Hot Gates") in August or September 480 BC. Related Content. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Battle of Thermopylae, (480 bce), battle in central Greece at the mountain pass of Thermopylae during the Persian Wars. Thermopyle synonyms, Thermopyle pronunciation, Thermopyle translation, English dictionary definition of Thermopyle. Videos 2. Then after much discussion and compromise between Greek city-states, suspicious of each others' motives, a joint army of between 6,000 and 7,000 men was sent to defend the pass at Thermopylae through which the Persians must enter mainland Greece. Photo by W. C. Runder, Inc. Thermopylae Wikipedia. Next in King Darius’ sights were Athens and the rest of Greece. Thermopylae, narrow pass on the east coast of central Greece between the Kallídhromon massif and the Gulf of Maliakós, about 85 miles (136 km) northwest of Athens (Athína). Leonidas was in charge of the Greek forces; Xerxes of the Persians. Thermopylae is arguably the most famous battle in European ancient history, repeatedly referenced in ancient, recent, and contemporary culture. Quizzes 1. Cartwright, Mark. Oeta and the Gulf of Lamia: Persian defeat of the Spartans 480 b.c. The term Ancient, or Archaic, Greece refers to the years 700-480 B.C., not the Classical Age (480-323 B.C.)