Traditional African belief is overwhelmingly monotheistic. Though the spirit world is a radically different world, it is also a "carbon copy of the countries where [the ancestors] lived in this life" (John S. Mbiti, Concepts of God in Africa [SPCK, 1970], p. 259). defined, explained, and measured, causing agricultural extension and policy to rely on a body of literature that is often not able to offer clear recommendations on the variables or mechanisms that can be used to design interventions. In the native religion of the Yoruba people, Orisha (spelled òrìṣà in the Yoruba language, orichá in Cuban practice and orixá in Brazilian practice of Latin America) are spirits sent by Olodumare. The author is aware that Jesus is our mediator, who connects us-directly to God. I give praise to the universe I give praise to mother earth I give praise to all of nature and its beings I give praise to all my guiding spirits I give praise to my ancestors I give praise to all that came before me in this struggle I give praise to my elders I give praise to all those who have cared for me, protected me, guided me and loved me I give praise to…. Therefore, the main goals of this article are to: (1) develop criteria to assess the quality and scope of conceptual models and (2) identify and compare exemplary models for technology integration in educational settings along with these quality criteria. Ancestor worship is found in many cultures all across the world. The believed to be Go’s lieutenants who are given ministerial functions by God. Africans believed in existence of a supreme being who lived in mountains, clouds and the sky. They profess habits of truth, justice, honesty, good character, and diligence. The above concept share light to the way some Africans communicate in life, The spirit world is the most pervasive worldview. 3 The role of God, spirits and ancestors. This is a universal belief among Africans. These models can be seen as simplified versions of theories for practical application or as condensed wisdoms of practice that need to be further investigated theoretically and empirically. The African continent includes so many countries, regions, languages, tribes, cultures and crossovers that the sheer diversity of prevailing Gods would seem overwhelming if there weren’t a few handy shortcuts. Today, there is a wide range of conceptual models that are developed and used in research and/or practice focusing on educational technology integration. - I renounce all false beliefs and philosophies inherited by my ancestors in the name of Jesus. Some people liken the Orishas to gods … The calling to be a Sangoma or shaman is believed to come from various ancestor spirits and your direct ancestor spirits. In the hierarchically ordered world of African Traditional Religion, God is the ancestor, par excellence. The Jews too do not worship En-Sof. We also broadly assessed the ability of conceptual models to support building numerical models. Download document ( 100.00 KES ) ... Herero Spirit of Ancestors. For example, farming activities involved God, spirits and ancestors. All life, power, and existence flow from God, and by “right of their primogeniture and proximity to God by death God has granted the ancestors a qualitatively more powerful life force over their descendants.” Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. In his book, ‘The living dead and the living God,’ Klaus Nurnberger (2007: 37) says that “Effective authority must be existentially present. Other articles where Ancestor worship is discussed: African religions: Ritual and religious specialists: Ancestors also serve as mediators by providing access to spiritual guidance and power. Question: "What does the Bible say about ancestor worship?" Ancestor cults and ancestor worship loom large in the anthropological image of sub-Saharan Africa. Modern Africans, like their ancestors, do not worship Tu-SoS, which they variously call Olodumare, Osanobua, Chukwu. The ancestor is a human being that fulfilled his/her destiny, or God-given purpose, in life and achieves metaphysical completion in death. He is believed to be the creator of the world the sovereign ruler of the whole universe and all that is in it – man, animal, and plants. 8.2. Enekpe. for the guidance of all creation and of humanity in particular, on how to live and be successful on Àiyé (Earth). Ekpatt, A. O. The invisible things included deities, divinities and ancestors. Though Islam has conquered north Africa and Christianity (as the world sees it) has conquered the rest, through it all is the power of ancestor worship. African Supreme God. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. (add any others you wish to give praise to) Integrated 3D Modeling adaptation on infrastructure has been slow due to technical challenges, such as the lack of interoperability between software. Mbiti (1969:178) disputes the use of the term worship, yet he accepts that in the worship of God, in some cases, sacrifices and offerings are directed to one or more of the following: God, spirits and the living dead (ancestors). I want to write very briefly here about the various kinds of spirits that can be part of a shamanic calling and become your guides or possess you as you do the work of the ancestors. The belief in ancestors stands central in the traditional African thought and is an essential pillar of religion practiced in Africa (Stinton 2004:133–134). I believe this assertion to be correct and so the question, “How do African concepts of God relate to the God of the Bible?” is most worthy of our consideration. The Orishas are a group of spirits originating from Yorubaland, which is a region in Africa spanning Nigeria, Benin and Togo. There may be spirits and ancestors floating around, but there’s only one God. African spirituality is about liberation according to Adofo. Only those who lived a full measure of life, cultivated moral values, and achieved social distinction attain this status. 2 African understanding of the hierarchy of beings. Biblically an ancestor is a family member that has passed on. The gods and ancestors are guardians of morality. Traditional Africans have a three tier view of the world, similar to that of the ancient Hebrews, consisting of the sky, the earth, which includes land and water, and the area under the earth, which is the abode of the ancestors (Kalu 2000:56). Ancestors and wilderness Spirits. We did have a relationship with God through African Prophets before the coming of missionaries. Qualities Of God SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Selected Aspects In African Religious Heritage: African Concept Of God Selected Old Testament Prophets And Their Teachings Shepherds Sinai Covenant: Moses Spirits And Ancestors Spread Of Christianity St. Luke Gospel Technology And Environment The Bible The Galilean Ministry THE GIFTS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT Africans rather see the divinities as special beings, offspring, and/or apparitional beings who receive their authority from the supreme being to serve in the unitary theocratic system of the supreme being's government. Their major function is mediation between God and man. (ii) They intercede for the community's needs to God. The belief remains that there is an interaction between the invisible and visible worlds (2007;377). However, there is insufficient agreement on the dimensions and criteria used to judge the quality of conceptual models in educational technology. Many cultures, including many in South Africa, define an ancestor as a family member that is living in the world of the dead. Ancestor Spirits and their role in African Traditional Religion. This diversity has resulted in a lack of convergence in the way adoption is. Death is not a sufficient condition for becoming an ancestor. They are also seen as great and ancient ancestor spirits by some and to be higher than the Nguni. He is invisible and infinite and cannot be comprehended by the finite man. A.W. Ancestors: The ancestors, according to Quarcome (1987) are the heroes and heroines of the various tribes who are believed to have acquired extra-human powers in the afterlife which enables to intervene in the lives of the living members of the society. b) venerating and communicating with spirits and ancestors wide range of conceptual models are developed and used in research and/or practice focusing on educational technology integration. This is how you can recognize the Spirit of God: Every spirit that does not acknowledg e Jesus is not from God. Ancestor worship and belief is an extension of a belief in and respect for elders. Findings from this review can be considered by adoption researchers and modelers in their work to assist policy and extension efforts to improve the uptake of future beneficial agricultural innovations. Gods are often known by several names. They originate from Mozambique, Malawi and Swaziland. The Ndebele believe that uMlimo is the oldest ancestor and the consult him through amadhlozi. Selected Aspects In African Religious Heritage: African Concept Of God Selected Old Testament Prophets And Their Teachings Similarities Between The Traditional African Myths And The Biblical Accounts Of Creation SIN SINAI COVENANT: MOSES Spirits Spirits And Ancestors Steps In The Formation/ Sealing Of The Covenant Satan has always sought to supplant God, and he uses lies about worshiping other gods and even ancestors to try to lead people away from the truth of God’s existence. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. This is the spirit of anti-christ, which you have heard is coming and even is All spirit beings are endowed with certain powers and they apply these powers upon the humans for their good or for their harm. This chapter concludes by suggesting that there is the need for proper religious education, a theology of enculturation, and understanding of African worldviews in order to sustain Africans' beliefs and practices. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. Today, there are a. Concepts of God, Divinities, Ancestors, and Spirits in African Traditional Religious Thought: Conceptual Analysis January 2021 DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4595-9.ch002 In Africa, the world was believed to be inhabited by beings both visible and invisible. All rights reserved. We have tried to collect as many Holy Aliases as possible. O’Donovan (1995: 41) goes as far as suggesting that “there is probably no native-born African who is not aware of the existence of God”. Also his prosperity, comfort and good living are derived from the spirits of his ancestors. When Africans need to connect spiritually it is imperative to first connect with African culture research African history most importantly honor your ancestors. 8.2. This paper seeks to examine how Africans conceive of the Supreme Being, divinities and spirits. "Concepts of God, Divinities, Ancestors, and Spirits in African Traditional Religious Thought: Conceptual Analysis." I offer guidance to my ancestors and spirits by way of the Guardian Angels and Protective Spirits who by the power and order of God will assist them in their greater act of evolution. Death is not a sufficient condition for becoming an ancestor. Basics. The concept of God, divinities and spirits in African traditional religious ontology has been so misunderstood by many scholars to the point of seeing Africans as people who did not know the Supreme Being nor worship Him. Tore. While some religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, most follow a polytheistic system with various gods, spirits … (a) What was the role of ancestors in Traditional African Communities? If there were calamities such as drought, disease, famine, and death, itwas an indication that God, spirits and ancestors were displeased with humankind. Suggestions for further research in the field include: questioning whether the adoption of all technologies and practices can be represented by the same adoption or learning process, exploring the dynamics in the relationship between adopters and technology before and after adoption, and questioning the basic assumptions behind the process of individual decision-making models and the role of collective decision-making. Full measure of life and achieves metaphysical completion in death believe that ancestors maintain a spiritual connection with living. 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