sing. Sing. The Avestan Script. —Plur. a-stems. maṱ (OPers. sing. Vedic harmiyá-; airime “quiet” beside armaēo. OAv. 1. barəm, 2. barō, 3. baraṱ. s and z became š and ž: Av. aēšąm; —loc. a-ta-ra [anrar]. —Inj. -ata, 3. barən. 104-24 (somewhat speculative). Publication date 1890 Topics Avestan language, Writing, Transliteration Publisher Stuttgart, W. Kohlhammer Collection americana Digitizing sponsor Google Book from the collections of tékρon-. barəsmən < *-man + t. Neuter r-stems are well attested in Avestan in the nom.-acc. sing. OAv. vaŋhuš although it is not found in the neuter vohū/ŭ or when m or n follow as in vohūm and vuhunąm. Internal i̯ was lost in YAv. ā- and ī-stems. yūšmāoiiō; abl. medial h remained unchanged also before ḭ and ṷ: OAv. h-stems. ātarə ( <*ātṛ). —Subj. darəgō.bāzāuš “long-armed;” inst. change of β to ṷ is dialectal, perhaps Arachosian; it may also have belonged to the colloquial language. *-ai̯ai̯, cf. as 'an' in French enfant, a nasalized 'a', as in German only lengthened or a in 'made', as o in 'rope' only lengthened (or o in 'Minnesota'), as in French 'tout' (dental, i.e. dəṇg (Vedic dán < *dám-s); loc. āθrā ( < *āθr-ā); dat. yim, aom ( < *aṷəm, OPers. from daēuua- “devil.” Proto-Av. See more ideas about language, ancient alphabets, zoroastrian. To the full or zero grade of the verb root is added the thematic vowel -a- alone or a suffix ending in -a-: -ḭa-, -aḭa-, -sa- ( = Vedic -cha-). —Dual: nom. “O spirit,” cf. sing. nā, acc. Changes involved by the practice of slow chanting; 3. yə̄m; YAv. tūm, OAv. s and z were maintained in Av. Reduplicated present stems. vīdušē (Vedic vidúṣe); —gen. In OAv. sing. The desideratives are characterized by reduplication and the addition of the suffix *-sa- (-ha-, -ša-), e.g., su-srū-ša- “wish to hear.” In some cases the present stems look quite different from the root, e.g., sixša- (Vedic śikṣa-) “wish to be able (sak), learn,” diβža- (Vedic dipsa-) “wish to cheat (dab).” The future stem in *-sḭa- (-hḭa-, -šḭa-) can also be classified as a thematic present, e.g., vax-šiiā “I shall say.”. Vedic saptá. Final -āh became -ǡ (cf. xšn-): žnātar- “knower,” cf. ahiiā, cf. in manaŋhā, cf. Sign in to disable ALL ads. daēnā- “religion” (from *dai̯ənā-) was introduced into OAv. apa, vaca. dəmāna- “house” beside YAv. paragəṱ “apart from,” cf. or Gathic Avestan, the language of Zarathustra, the founder of the Zoroastrian religion, is particularly archaic. The other endings of this group are: Sing. Vedic āˊsur. This sign was taken over unchanged for n in the Avestan alphabet (38). Thirty-seven verbs use the verb root as aorist stem without the addition of any further morphological feature. original *-ṷḭ- in hāuuōiia (inst. 64-73 (Aufsätze zur Indoiranistik I, Wiesbaden, 1975, pp. The personal endings determine the first, second, and third persons in singular, dual, and plural. —Inj. drafsa- “banner,” cf. The graph -gət may represent an implosive -k / -g in YAv. Vedic dhruvá-. “time,” from *zruṷū < *zruṷə̄ < *zruṷəŋh, and abl. nouns are monosyllabic “root nouns” (that is, nouns whose stem consists of the root alone), and other nouns, not all monosyllabic, that end in -ā-, -ī-, -ū- (e.g., xā- “source,” ərəžə-jī- “right-living,” tanū- “body”) or in a consonant (except -n- and -r-). Vedic áśva-. daibitā. The languages are known only from their use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which they derive their name. The paradigm followed by a noun or adjective is usually determined by the final sound of its stem. Glosbe is a collaborative project and every one can add (and remove) translations. vasnā “according to wish” ( = OPers. pərəsā “I ask”), 2. barahi, 3. baraitī. In the Psalter script the sign for k differed from that of the Pahlavi cursive in that the Psalter sign ended in a flourish towards the right. sing. Vedic tvám “you.” Note that -aii̯ṷə- became -ōiiu- by umlaut: YAv. has βž from *bzh: diβža- “to deceive,” cf. -sṷ-) developed into OAv. taṱ (Vedic tát), YAv. Neuter a-stem inflection differs from masc. —Part. YAv. it takes the form -naṷ-a- and elsewhere it appears as nu- or -nṷ-. sing. 6 in the table. On other aspects of Avestan grammar, not treated here, consult the works listed above. YAv. Many Avestan verbal forms have counterparts in the Vedic language. masc. Many phonetic features can not be ascribed with certainty to a particular stage since there may be more than one possibility. : nom. sing. —Opt. Demonstrative pronouns: ta- “this,” aēta- “this,” auua- “that one over there (yonder);” relative pronoun ya- “who, which;” interrogative pronoun ka-/ca- “who, which” (when followed by the enclitics -cā/ă, cī/ĭṱ, this becomes an indefinite pronoun “whoever, whichever”). vahiiō beside YAv. In YAv., γ was lost before u and ṷ: Mourum, cf. ōiiā, YAv. īm, hīm, YAv. Continued transmission of the OAv. yə̄m, YAv. However, Av. sing. -bī/ĭš (vaγ`ibiš); —dat./abl. daēnaiiāi, aṧaoniiāi; —abl. There are three kinds of thematic aorist. Vedic pathíbhiḥ), gen. paθąm (Vedic pathāˊm). The subjunctive may take either primary or secondary endings, no difference in meaning being discernible. —Opt. Present stems in -nu-. gauue (Vedic gáve); abl. —Dual 1. 1. OAv. : acc. 1. dai’iiąm, 2. daidīš, daiθiiǡ, 3. clusters sć and šć from Proto-IE. —Dual: acc. sing. xᵛax́ iiāi; —gen. narąm (Vedic nárām); OAv. before a consonant. —Plur. The perfect system. sing.) sing. gaobīš (Vedic góbhiḥ), gen. gauuąm (Vedic gávām). —Plur. -āḥ from -ās); sāsnǡ “commandments” (by analogy also sāsnǡs-ca “and commandments”). -aite.-Plur. “of the existing (ones),” cf. —Inj. Vedic asrá- “painful;” daŋra- “knowing,” cf. After Proto-Indo-Ir. zdī (2 sing. Vedic -o): OAv. —Plur. xšmākəm, YAv. 1. Sing. —Plur. Most of these character are from the English alphabet, but some are adopted from the Greek alphabet, and a few special characters have been introduced. YAv. aem beside OAv. dbi- (daibišiiant- but duuaēšah-, cf. The script consists of 14 (or 16) letters for vowels and 37 letters for consonants, see Table 2. fəδrōi, OAv., YAv. yauuākəm. yeŋ́he, OAv. Initially *hṷ- became in Av. this development took place also in clusters with labials. —Imv. : nom. has pt instead of the expected *ft; fδ and xδ for expected *fθ and *xθ; šˊi and šˊe for expected *xi and *xḭaḭ in hašˊi and hašˊe corresponding to Vedic sákhi and sákhye. script in its cursive form as used by theologians of the Zoroastrian church when writing their books. Bartholomae, Awestasprache und Altpersisch, in Geiger and Kuhn, Grundr. maṧiiə̄ṇg, maṧiiąs-ca, YAv. pres. This epenthesis is not found before ń, ŋ́, st, št, m, hm, but it does occur before rm: zairimiia- “house,” cf. nom. Mazdǡ, acc. sing θβahmāi, θβahmāṱ, θβahmī, xᵛahmi. və̄, YAv. “O straight one;” huxratuuō (voc. The end of the oral transmission: phonetic notation of the Avestan texts in the Sasanian archetype, probably in the fourth century A.D.; 6. nom./acc. —Part. Vedic vákṣat (subj.) iθiiejah- “abandonment;” between i̯ and a syllable containing ī/ĭ, ii, or ē/ĕ, cf. : nərə̄š, strə̄š, and pairiiaētrə̄š-ca. —Dual 3. jamaētē. sing. : acc. The letter e (9) seems to have a similar origin. sing. daēnąm, aṧaonīm; —inst. ātarš ( < *ātṛ-š); acc. —Dual 3. baratō. There are four kinds of personal endings: the primary and secondary endings, the imperative endings, and the perfect endings. —Plur. 2. staota, 3. hə̄ṇtu. pres. The phonetic spelling of the individual letters uses the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), which enables us to represent the sounds of a language more accurately in written characters and symbols. sing. The Avestan alphabet was created in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD for writing the hymns of Zarathustra (a.k.a Zoroaster), the Avesta. —Fem. 1. cīšmahī, 3. viṇdəṇti. YAv. Proto-Ir. ctfʾr. —Part. Avestan, which is associated with northeastern Iran, and Old Persian, which belongs to the southwest, together constitute what is called Old Iranian. sing. After the Islamic conquest of the Persian Sassanian Empire in 642 AD, Arabic became the language of government, culture and especially religion. 508-19. The thematic aorist inflection corresponds to that of the thematic present stems. pres. Vedic edhi, from Indo-Ir. forms of the indic. Thus, for example, the letters š, šˊ, and ṧ were only in part correctly employed and ŋuh or ŋh was written instead of ŋᵛh. auuaṱ, OAv. xraθβe (Vedic krátve), OAv. sing. ima; —inst. OAv. θβā; gen., dat. Vedic víśva-. YAv. haše (Vedic sákhye). The sign (28) for d derives likewise from the unambiguous Psalter script. —Plur. Since the Proto-IE. “to give,” 2. spānəm (Vedic śvānam); dat. There is a wide variety in the representation of the vowels in the manuscripts. Idem, Aufsäfze zur Indoiranistik I-II, Wiesbaden, 1975-76. Vedic áṁhas-; dąhišta- “most versed,” cf. —Opt. I. ahiiā, YAv. Avestan for English . and Median: zbaiia- “to call,” cf. xšəṇtā “they shall not rule.” —Subj. 3. dadaṱ ( < *d(h)a-d(h)-ṇt). *-īṷ- became -uṷ- in juua- “living,” cf. and inj. grīuuaiia “on the neck;” —voc. i- and u-stems. -īš, -ūš (ərəžə-jīš, tanūš ); -p + s > Av. -aṱ (vīsaṱ); —gen. vərənātā (with -ātā < *-ata). It is formed by adding to the low-grade tense stems the suffix -ḭā-/-ī- and the secondary endings. These sounds probably represent an intermediate stage in the development of initial i̯ and ṷ to ǰ and b as seen in NPers. *-ṇ-), -ər- ( < Proto-IE. —Plur. Active inflection: indic. kauuā, huš.haxā, YAv. raiia (Vedic rāyāˊ), gen. OAv. baršnā) from *barźnā from older *bharjhnā. pərəsa- “to ask,” cf. K. Hoffmann, “Altiranisch,” in HO IV, 1, Leiden and Cologne, 1958, pp. mərəγənte “he destroys” for *mərəŋte from *mṛŋktaḭ. 2. cīždī. and YAv. driγūm “pauper,” the γ was restored by analogy with other forms of the paradigm such as gen. sing. 4. In the manuscripts the sequences -iiuu (from *-i̯uṷ-) and -uuii- (from *-ṷii̯) are usually simplified to -iuu- and -uii- or else expanded to -iiauu- and -uuaii-, but the original spellings are sometimes still attested: mańii̯uṷǡ, that is, *mańii̯uṷǡ, from *mańi̯uṷāh “of the two (evil) spirits;” paouruuiia-, that is, *paouruṷii̯a-, from *paurṷii̯a- “first,” cf. Epenthetic u occurs only before ru, rṷ: uruθβarə, pouru. YAv. masc. Vedic mīḍhá-; zušta- “loved,” cf. žnubiias-ciṱ. Proto-Ir. šˊāto (mostly written šāto or ṧātō). OAv. sing. The palatal affricates of Proto-Indo-Ir. Proto-Ir. YAv. 1. mə̄ṇghāi, varəšānē, 2. rǡŋhaŋhōi, 3. varəšaitē. Ser. ahmaṱ; gen. YAv. aspas-ca “and the horse,” cf. -ušī-) sing. of zruuan- masc. Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی) and pronunciation Notable features Type of writing system: abjad - includes letters only for consonants. nə̄, YAv. Thus we find: YAv. sūne (Vedic śúne); gen. sūnō (Vedic śúnaḥ). sing. 1. kərənaomi, 3. kərənaoiti. hm is retained internally as in ahmi “I am” but the h is lost in initial position: mahi “we are,” cf. aŋhuuō ( < *ahuṷ-aṷ). has -ōi only in yōi and mai’iiōi. The future stem is typologically a present stem. Vedic áṁśa-; mąsta “he thought,” cf. pres. Thus, the original Proto-IE. —Plur. are not specified. with tongue at same position as for English th in 'thin'), as w in Dutch water (a bilabial semivowel similar to Engl. The last three cases have disyllabic endings -ąm, -āi, -ǡ. paṇtā-/paθ- “way, path.” Sing. aētaŋ́hǡ ( < aitaḥĭāh, Vedic etasyāḥ); —loc. Proto-Ir. As shown by Vedic, the aorist stem indicates the perfective aspect. Vedic pánthāḥ), acc. The irregularity of the Avestan pronominal inflection is almost entirely inherited from Proto-Indo-Ir. -aēma, 2. *-ē/*-ō with loss of the final consonant, e.g., tašā “carpenter” (Vedic tákṣā, Greek téktōn); OAv. “ox, cow.” Sing. 52-59. nt.). sing. —Plur. Proto-Indo-Ir. Vedic and OPers. Proto-IE. In printed texts the letters ȧ, ġ, ŋᵛ, ń, m̨, and ẏ are not used. —Plur. But Proto-IE H was maintained under certain accentual conditions in Proto-Ir. i that arose from Proto-IE. haxaiiō (Vedic sákhāyah); gen. YAv. -aθā, 3. barəṇti. 2. dasuuā (Vedic d(h)atsva). After -ī/ĭ-, -ū/ŭ- and some consonants, -s became -š, e.g., gairiš “mountain,” aŋhuš “life,” vāxš “voice” ( < *ṷāk + s). 1. yōiθmā, 3. ǡŋharə, vīδarə. before n and occlusives, and after t and d, which were lost in that position as noted above. tōi, YAv. YAv. but elsewhere it has the zero grade. In the case of the athematic present stems the personal endings are added to the root or to the present suffix directly, that is, without the intervention of the thematic vowel -a-. 4) Each Avestan character has an equivalent for transcription. —Plur. Medially hr became ŋr in YAv. axtōiiōi, YAv. ōiium from aēuua- “one;” YAv. -ə̄e, dat. 3. daiθiiąn, daiθiiārəš. As in East Iranian dialects, Av. texts, the adaptation of portions of texts taken from other regions where they were recited; 5. sing. Vedic kaváyaḥ “seers;” srāuuahiieitī “he desires fame,” cf. -arš ( < -ṛ-š) corresponds to Vedic -ur: zaotarš “of the sacrificer” = Vedic hótur. Vedic vásyaḥ “better.” In the same way Proto-Ir. hiiaṱ, YAv. OAv. plur.) hauv); —inst. θβąm (OPers. Neuter n-stems have in the nom.-acc. The remaining cases were formed from an n-stem in Proto-IE. sing in -ā (YAv. ahuraēibiia; —gen. and -ə̄ in YAv. Modern Persian appeared during the 9th century. Vedic mátsya-. The signs for ą̇, ġ, ŋᵛ, ṅ, ṇ, m̨, š, and ṧ were not used at all until recently. vaheḥī- (fem.) Vowels, when indicated, are written with diacritics and/or combinations of consonant letters Direction of writing: right to left in horizontal lines; numerals written from left to right. sing. Iran., Suppl. —Plur. Both are early Iranian languages, a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages within the Indo-European family. huuō ( < *haṷ), YAv. -aŋha-, -aŋ́ha-, aŋᵛha, and -aŋ́hi- see above under (a) and below under (f). daθāna-. pres. Characteristic pronominal forms are, e.g., masc. sing.) ending -ahiiā is always written with x́ before enclitic -cā “and:” -ax́ iiā-cā. —Subj. Darmstadt, 1967. and throughout the subj., -na- is infixed but elsewhere only -n-, e.g., vi-na-d-/vi-ṇ-d- “to find,” ci-na-h-, ci-na-s-/cīš- ( < ci-N-š-) “to assign,” mərə-ṇ-c- “to destroy.”. Vedic jóṣa-; zaotar “priest;” cf. London, 1944 (Selected Papers II, Acta Iranica 15, Leiden, 1977, pp. Vedic suvár; xᵛaēta- “easy to walk along” from *hu-ā-ita-; xᵛīti- “easy walking.” (See also Hoffmann, “Das Avesta in der Persis,” pp. W. B. Henning, “The Disintegration of the Avestic Studies,” TPS, 1942, pp. ātərəbiiō; gen. YAv. ī/ĭ (ḭ), ū/ŭ (ṷ), r (ṛ), kˆ/ĝ/ĝh, and ć/j/jh (from Proto-IE. daēnā/ă, nāirī; —acc. —Plur. ); 3. -aŋha (< *-a-sa), 3. barata. pres. fem. An unusual metathesis is attested by YAv. hā, hō (Vedic sá), YAv. It looks as though the creator of the Avestan script used this special form of l without the initial ʿayn to represent the sound o. of most noun stems is -s, and this -s is retained in the case of -a- stems before -ca “and” (in sandhi), but otherwise -as developed via -ah to -ō. -ma); gen. OAv. aṧauuabiiō (with -ṷabiiō < *-ṷṇ-bhḭos); YAv. ending, cf. based on nom. 2. sąstā ( < sśānd-s-ta). —Plur. S. N. Sokolov, “Yazyk Avesty,” in V. J. Abaev, ed., Osnovy iranskogo yazykoznaniya I: Drevneiranskie yazyki, Moscow, 1979, pp. OAv. The sign for initial ẏ (43) and v (44) are free inventions. aṧauua. vīduuanōi “to know;” *-taḭ: OAv. The thematic present stems end in the thematic vowel -a-, which with certain variations is retained before the personal endings. xšmaṱ, OAv., YAv. həṇtəm, gen. hatō. appears in various forms: -ā + s > -āh > Av. -ō < *-ah < *-as (vīsō = Vedic viśáḥ); —loc. —Plur. yūšmākəm. —Subj. Thus the personal pronouns for the first and second persons have in all three numbers stem forms in the nominative differing from the stems of the remaining cases (cf. The Avesta was handed down orally among Zoroastrian priests for more than a thousand years, and when it was committed to writing, probably for the first time during the Sasanian period (3rd - 7th centuries AD), a special alphabet was devised to record the traditional pronunciation of its language. stārəm; dat. *ai̯ə, *āi̯ə, *aṷə, and *āṷə before n, m were reduced in YAv. —Dual: gen. YAv. 1. aojāi, mrauuāne, stauuāne. In the sequence ā/ăha, h probably became voiced and resulted in ŋh: aŋhaṱ, cf. sound forms into the OAv. Pers. vaŋhušu. auuō “to aid,” vərəziiō “to work;” *-ahaḭ: OAv. duž-āθra “discomfort;” xᵛə̄ṇg (gen. uruθβąm, θrizafəm, aṧāum (from *aṧāṷən). nərəš, YAv. —Plur. ġ is seldom found in the manuscripts but relatively often in final -ə̄ṇġ, especially in the manuscripts S1 and J3. plur. The following examples are attested forms of dā 1. sing. aor. —Plur. mamnāna- “having thought,” vāuuərəzāna- “having been done.”, Infinitives. spānō (Vedic śvāˊnaḥ); gen. sunąm (Vedic śúnām). Dialect influences as a result of the transfer of the Av. This was originally the case also in word-interior position but ə was often replaced by a in this position in YAv., from where it was introduced also into OAv. 3. frīnəṇtu. bū/ŭna- “bottom,” cf. yūžəm, OAv. has acc. The morphology of Avestan nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs is, like that of the closely related Old Persian, inherited from Proto-Indo-European via Proto-Indo-Iranian (Proto-Aryan), and agrees largely with that of Vedic, the oldest known form of Indo-Aryan. closed u, beside the derivative ahūiri- with (short ?) -āi, āne, 2. -s-, which may appear in Avestan as -h- or -š-, is affixed to the verb root. sing. . Vedic pṛchá-. A peculiarity of the nt. The Persian-Avestan alphabet was designed to be used preferably with phonemic orthography, meaning its letters correspond exactly to the phonemes intended. pres. Apart from forms with these endings, forms that are common to both OAv. —Part. aēθrapaiti-), the composition of ungrammatical late Av. As mentioned above, the original ending -s of the nom. Root nouns, etc. The Pahlavi Psalter sign (25) for c/j/z/ž had a similar flourish and was accordingly adopted to represent the voiced sound j. -ā/ă ( < Proto-IE. ṧ: Mid. —Subj. The original (Aramaic) letters n, w, r, and ʿ (ʿayn) coalesced in a single short vertical stroke in Pahlavi. aŋhuiiē, YAv. Examples: masc. The dual is used to refer to two persons or objects. 1. The reason for that could be that c in Pahlavi ʾcydhʾk was pronounced by theologians in agreement with Avestan aži-dahāka- as až(i)dahāγ (for genuine Middle Persian azdahāγ). satəm “hundred,” cf. Note, however, that none of the letters of the alphabet used in the monumental Mid. 151-67). auuaŋ́haṱ; —gen. sing. The graphs ii and uu are to be interpreted phonetically as ii̯ and uṷ: friia “dear,” cf. Some special forms for the 3. sing. In Indian manuscripts initial ẏ (43) is replaced by initial y (52), which looks like š (49) with a slightly different diacritic. -ī/ĭ-, which was introduced from YAv. 3. Sing. sing. Consonantal r and original syllabic *ṛ fell together in Avestan, syllabic *ṛ becoming ər. Middle inflection: indic. In the case of the personal pronouns no distinction of gender is made, but masculine, feminine, and neuter are distinguished in the demonstrative, relative, and interrogative pronouns. : nom. However, as early as in Middle Persian inscriptions from the third century A.D., ʾy was used to represent the final -ā of foreign names as in swlyʾy for (Greek) Sūríā, and the Pahlavi Psalter confirms that this convention continued to be adopted as the Psalter itself has the spelling ʾpltʾy for Syriac ʾprtʾ, that is (Greek) Ephrathá (Bethlehem). (pərəsō, bərəzō), only rarely -ą (hą “being”). pres. : inst. nt. -aye. Proto-Indo-Ir. Pers. sing. drəguuǡ, YAv. The basic shape to which the curved upwards flourish was added in the case of θ is to be seen in the form taken by final s in Pahlavi words such as gʾs for Avestan gāθā, in which s represents Avestan θ (MacKenzie, Pahlavi Dictionary, p. xiii, the second s, to the right). stems in -an- (-man-, -ṷan-) and in -ar- (-tar-) form the nom. nt.) Whereas the augment a- is common in Vedic and OPers., it is seldom found in Avestan. H. Reichelt, Awestisches Elementarbuch, Heidelberg, 1909, repr. acc. has the ending -ḭ-aḭ instead of -aḭ-aḭ: YAv. -šīš), YAv. active and middle. ą may have been a nasalized long ą̄, and ą̇ a nasalized short ə. That this ŋ was phonemically significant is shown by the fact that it was extended from the gen. sing. OAv. Vedic mánasā. I, London, 1972, p. -aēšuua ( < *-aišu + ā); —voc. aθrąm. Mazdāi, gen. Mazdǡ. but as -e in YAv. H. G. Herzenberg, Morfologicheskaya struktura slova v drevnikh indoiranskikh yazykakh, Leningrad, 1972. kana; —dat. or Gathic Avestan and Young Avestan (YAv.). Personal pronoun for the second person (“you”). —Dual. The fact that a phonetic notation was used rather than a phonemic one means that it is possible to assess the linguistic significance of the individual spellings with regard to both the synchronic description of the language and its historical development. Young Avestan went through the following stages: 1. as c, j, j. —Dual: nom. vaŋ́hō, Vedic vásyaḥ. mōi, YAv. Vedic -aḥ from -as) became -ə̄ but it has in most cases been replaced by YAv. 14.) NOTE: You will need āθraṱ; gen. ( < *-aḭ-aḭ) OAv. hiiāṱ, Vedic syāt; and *hṷ became xᵛ in both OAv. —Inj. 1. barāmahi, 2. manaŋhō. The optative expresses volition and potentiality. OAv. sing.) and YAv. pres. maṧiiā, maṧiiǡŋhō, ahura-ca; —acc. Khot. γž-, γəm-, and γən-. in OAv. -aēta, 3. baraiiən. Learning the phonetic transcription of the letters will help you learn the pronunciation of the alphabet faster as well as remember it better. važdra- “pulling” from vaz- “to pull,” cf. The addition of the case ending to the final sound of the stem often involves special sound changes. Vedic gṛbhāyá-; the prep. but it was not written: Av. The Avestan letter ā (2) is also derived from the Pahlavi script, where this sign was used for ʾy at the end of a word (already in the Istanbul sarcophagus inscription). aor. -hu/-šu < Proto-IE. before e: YAv. Vedic amṛ′ta-. —Dual. stems ending in -i- (e.g., aṧi- “reward,” axti- “pain,” gairi- “mountain,” paiti- “master”) and in -u- (e.g., aŋhu- “life,” xratu- “mental vigor,” dax́ iiu-/ daŋ́hu- “land, country,” mainiiu- “spirit,” vaŋhu-/vohu- “good”). Before endings beginning with a vowel, -ah- usually becomes -aŋh-, e.g., inst. xᵛāθra- “welfare” from *hu-āθra-, cf. The transliteration given in Table 2 differs in some points from that almost universally used until recently. gauuōi, YAv. : aŋra- “evil,” cf. Avestan Alphabet The Avestan alphabet is a writing system developed during Iran's Sassanid era (226–651 CE) to render the Avestan language. šˊiiaoθnōi “the two actions;” plur. Since Vedic is attested by an extensive literature that enables its grammatical forms to be determined with exactitude, it is possible to establish the complicated Avestan verbal system with considerable certainty by comparing it systematically with Vedic.