Typically, broilers are young chickens yellowish skin. 9th European Symposium on the Quality of Poultry, Meat, Kusadasi (Turkey), 9–12 September, pp 109–115, Wang LJ, Byrem TM, Zarosley J et al (1999) Skeletal muscle calcium, channel ryanodine binding activity in genetically unimproved, and commercial turkey populations. glycogen content compared to white fibers (Solomon et al. However, the tenderness scores were observed to be highest from IB3 (7.00). chilling (WIC) of the carcasses at 0°C ice slurry, 2) WIC after temperature abuse (TA) of the carcasses at 40°C for 30 min Natick Research Laboratory. Results revealed that dressing percentage relative to body weight was significantly differ among the dietary treatment groups, whereas % relative weight of all major organs was found comparable. /FontFile2 84 0 R J Am Diet Assoc 40:422–426, West LC, Titus MC, VanDuyne FO (1959) Effect of freezer storage, and variations in preparation on bacterial count, palatability, and, thiamine content of ham loaf, Italian rice, and chicken. World’s Poult Sci J, Forrest JC, Aberle ED, Hedrick HB, et al. /Type /Font poultry, causes minimal nutritional losses (Thomas and, radurization and radicidation, are used on chilled poultry in, a few countries to prolong shelf life with almost insignif-. Inclusion of Yohimbe in chicken diet has no effect on the colour, saltiness, and overall flavour of broiler chicken. endobj No, changes in digestibility of the freeze–dried chicken were. /AS [ << and shall not be self-archived in electronic, repositories. Office of Federal Register, National, Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC, Waldroup PW, Si J, Fritts CA (2001) Relationship of lysine and other, essential amino acids on live performance and breast yield in, broilers. Breast and wing parts prepared with the flour predust-batter-flour method had a higher moisture content in the meat portion than that of the noncoated controls. The main body of the chapter describes the pre-slaughter phase of broilers, associated welfare risks, and animal responses. [ /Indexed 72 0 R 38 88 0 R ] consumers associate it with the product’s freshness, they decide whether or not to buy the product based on, their opinion of its attractiveness. Immediately after slaughter, 48 turkeys from COMM or RB line were randomly subjected to one of four chilling methods: 1) water-immersion endobj Precooked foods in vacuum-, sealed containers are exposed to ionizing radiation, wise, palatability may be affected). Objective To determine the effect of dietary lysine level in the grower diet on broiler tissue composition. /Order [ ] 47 0 obj Cost of rearing the birds on diet L3 to slaughter age was 14.3% cheaper Australian Poultry Science Symposium, Sydney, Aus-. and HOCKING, P.M. (2009) Changes in muscle cell cation regulation and meat quality traits are associated with genetic selection for high body weight and meat yield in broiler chickens. /FontDescriptor 90 0 R However, chicken flocks suffer the Campylobacter infection during the rearing period, which allows chicken meat products act as a vehicle for transmitting this pathogen through the food chain and bring great health and economic burden to the public. The results showed that the mortality rate of malic acid treated group was consistently lower than that of the control group during the experimental period, and the total mortality was decreased from 52% in the control group, to 32% in malic acid treated group. /Event /View induce stress and may result in PSE-like (pale, soft, exudative) conditions recognized as tough meat by the, consumer. percentage reduced them by 6 and 20%, respectively. << << The nutritional value of meat, including that of poultry, is usually estimated based on parameters such as dry matter, protein content and composition, amino acid level and fat content [1,2]. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, SKUAST- Kashmir, Anantnag, Division of Poultry Science, IVRI, Izatnagar, Bareilly, India, Division of Livestock Products Technology, Bombay, J Food Sci Technol (September 2017) 54(10):2997–3009, texture, juiciness, wateriness, firmness, tenderness, odor, and flavor are the most important and perceptible meat, features that influence the initial and final quality judgment, by consumers before and after purchasing a meat, facturing value added meat products, quantifiable proper-. enhancing tenderness, juiciness, firmness, and appearance, improve the quality and economical value of meat. >> Meat Quality of Broiler Chicken as affected by Strain, Age at Slaughter and Immobilization Methods Akinwumi A. O.1, Odunsi, A. A.2 1Animal Products and Processing Technology Unit, Department of Animal Nutrition and Biotechnology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria The leaching out of thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin into water during boiling depends on, the cooking time and the surface area involved. >> /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding CLA causes increase in SFA content by the inhi-, ), the potentially dangerous effects of GMO in. The Red Ranger has a dark red feathering with a few of the tail feathers being either Also, the unsaturated fatty acids of cell phospholipids, after oxidation, react with BR products to form different volatiles, some of which may contribute to meat species flavor differences. The production of broiler chickens is the most dynam-ically developing part of the poultry farming sector because of the short chicken rearing time, while main-taining good quality meat and low costs associated with the production (Vissers et al., 2019). biological value of the fats in skillet-fried chicken, Nakai. Modified soups had significantly lower mean sodium content than their regular versions (28%-38%). endobj /OP false Ascorbic acid and thiamine, both present in only, minimal quantities in poultry meat, are susceptible to. 53 0 obj However, the meat quality of AA broilers was found to be promoted, the moisture increased by 5.12% − 5.92% (P < 0.05), and the fat decreased by 1.60% (P < 0.05). most affected by Radappertization causing oxidation, degradation, and decarboxylation of the lipid fraction, tion increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, (TBARS) increased in chicken and turkey breasts resp, tively. The precursors of most meaty volatiles include cysteine and the reducing sugars which react via the browning reaction (BR). Effects of coating preparation methods on yields and composition of fried parts were studied. >> Whether or not a poultry product meets the consumer’s, expectations depends upon the conditions surrounding, various stages in the bird’s development from the fertilized, egg through production and processing to consumption, is set to discuss the broiler meat quality attributes and, It could be argued that appearance is the most important, quality attribute of cooked or raw poultry meat because. Food Chem, Rathgeber BM, Boles JA, Shand PJ (1999) Rapid postmortem pH, decline and delayed chilling reduce quality of turkey breast, Sams AR (2001) First processing: slaughter through chilling. /Font << Though, ATP production, ceases, ATP consumption continues to cause the dissocia-. Shear values of IC fillets removed 0 and 1.67 h after chilling were similar and corresponded to sensory panel categories of slightly tough to tough (> 8 kg/g). /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 833 0 0 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 0 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 sion of muscle to meat, will determine final meat quality. /Ascent 1040 From 4-6 /DA (/Helv 0 Tf 0 g ) /P 35 0 R In order to safeguard welfare and avoid suffering, a wide range of As discussed earlier the denaturation of proteins occur as a, result of exposure to low pH and high temperatures early, during rigor mortis causing less water to be retained by the, meat due to loss of reactive groups and space between actin, and myosin filaments to hold water, thus increasing drip, loss or decreasing water holding capacity. including sugars, organic acids, peptides, free amino acids, and metabolites of adenine nucleotide metabolism which. /Marked true endobj /TT2 47 0 R of Food Scientists & Technologists (India). Primary, processing and further processing have become a matter of. In vitro studies show that a pH reduction of 1 unit, ). /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 833 0 0 333 333 500 0 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 females slaughtered at 40 and 52 d old, respectively, whereas heavy size were 57-d-old male broilers (2.4 kg of carcass weight; n = 90). chilling on breast meat quality is independent of scalding treatment. At the end (42 days age) 8 birds from each respective group (2 birds per replicates) were sacrificed for carcass characters and meat quality assessment. After slaughter, 15 carcasses per flock (n = 270) were randomly collected during winter (n = 135) and summer (n = 135) seasons and used at 24 h postmortem to determine breast (pectoralis major) meat color (lightness, redness, and yellowness), pH, drip and cook loss, as well as Allo-Kramer (AK) shear values. Red meat is less susceptible, than white meat to the development of PSE because of, higher amounts of myoglobin and hemoglobin, lower gly-, colytic potential, higher oxidative metabolism and lower. The, bleaching of epidermal layer occurs at temperatures, operation. chicken had linoleic acid levels of 20% of the total lipid, which increased to 34% upon cooking (frying). 2017). Though, challenged by the factors like cross-, contamination, wastewater management, reshackling, and, most popular method of chilling as compared to air. Keywords: Chicken, meat, essential oils, zeolite, antioxidants. Dransfield and, pletion of rigor in broiler chicken. /Type /OCG /ExportState /ON Anim Feed Sci, Hall KN, Lin CS (1981) Effect of cooking rates in electric or, microwave oven on cooking losses and retention of thiamine in, Hay JD, Currie RW, Wolfe IH (1973) Effect of postmortem aging on, chicken muscle lipids. and Uijttenboogaart, T.G. With these arguments the current review, ). >> /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 0 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 0 500 These factors, help us develop designer and value added meat products, making broiler meat production even more economi. Microwave cooking can alleviate two major destructive, components of conventional heating: external heat and, Frying is a common process, often utilized in the food, industry due to significant sales of vast quantity of fried, products. The, correlation of corticosterone to colour of meat has been, term elevation of plasma corticosterone levels produce, changes in color of the breast and thigh muscles, respec-, tively and they concluded that higher plasma corticosterone, levels in broilers were undoubtedly associated with PSE-, postmortem glycolysis, temperature, and pH are the three, most important factors contributing to the physicoch, changes observed in PSE. chilling. Thus, the seasonal heat stress might be a, ) reported that a feed withdrawal period of 15, ) argued that hot-deboned birds (without chilling) had, ) indicate that deep chilling is the best method tested, ), marination properties, sensory quality and tender-, ) have hypothesized that aging broiler breast, C), pre-cooked frozen chicken breasts had the same, ) Linoleic acid levels in the raw frozen chicken, ). meat: effects of chilling regime and rate and extent of glycolysis. This experiment was carried out to assess the influences of dietary inclusion of thermally oxidized soybean oil (OSO) with or without supplementation with vitamin E, tryptophan and β-glucan on growth performance, meat quality, plasma indices, jejunal antioxidative status, and jejunal gene expression of yellow-feathered male chickens aged 43 to 63 days. product before selling are slaughtering, cutting chicken portions, grading, weighing and packaging. an increase in the emphasis on food labels such as Light, Lean, low-fat, reduced-fat, reduced calories, etc. Various factors such as age, genetics, stress, slaughter methods and diet may affect meat colour, ... More so, the pH values at 24 h recorded in the current study can be ascribed to a lower amount of glycogen in the meat, attributed to fasting regime and inadequate handling during loading and off-loading of birds, which may affect muscle activity after death and glycogen depletion leading to pH drop (Tijare 2015). Poult Sci 88:2212–2218, Taylor ML, Hartnell GF, Riordan SG et al (2003) Comparison of, broiler performance when fed diets containing grain from Yield, Gard (MON810), Yield Gard x Roundup Ready (GA21) non, transgenic control, or commercial corn. Barring the faster rate of, glycolysis and rigor development in poultry, biochemical, postmortem changes involved in the conversion of muscle, to meat are similar to mammalian species. /Im1 68 0 R Most of differentially expressed genes in either BM or TM between NRS and FRS were enriched in the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes terms associated with regulation of muscle cellular functions, metabolic and contractile activities, and tissue remodeling, indicating similar molecular mechanisms principally responsible for the raising system-caused phenotypic changes in both muscle groups. /BM /Normal industry. Barbarie et de la castration chez le poulet. Chicken meat consumers look into lean meat quality, while producers look into a heavy weight of chicken per unit of production. Cook yield (%) of AC fillets was significantly higher than cook yield (%) of IC fillets for all deboning times. Of more than 1,000 flavor volatiles identified in meat, only a few have “meaty” aromas. In Germany duck and goose meat consumption per head amounts to 0.92 kg and 0.34 kg, respectively, but more than 40% of duck meat and 86% of goose meat are imported. 67: … According to the Italian poultry production system the following classes of birds were considered: light size (1.2 kg of carcass weight; n = 90) and medium size (1.8 kg of carcass weight; n = 90), represented by, A study was conducted to determine the effects of chilling method and postmortem aging time on broiler breast fillet quality. /AIS false Since the 1940s, strong consumer demand for affordable, safe and healthy poultry meat has stimulated the growth of the broiler industry Meat colour is an essential assessment criterion and is one of the most vital sensory attributes that influence consumers' acceptance of meat and their products (Adeyemi and Sazili 2014;Barbut 2015; ... Meat colour is an essential assessment criterion and is one of the most vital sensory attributes that influence consumers' acceptance of meat and their products (Adeyemi and Sazili 2014;Barbut 2015;Mir et al. irradiated oil emulsion containing amino acids and proteins. /XHeight 448 >> Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca Animal Science and Biotechnologies. No significant differences (P > 0.05) between the 2 scalding methods were observed for any of the quality attributes. Materials and Methods Poult Sci, Anadon HLS (2002) Biological, nutritional, and processing factors, affecting breast meat quality of broilers. corresponding average value for dark meat (skin off) is, coronary heart disease and about half of the fat is made up, of the desirable monounsaturated fats, and only one-third, of the less healthy saturated fats. Meat quality of slow- and fastgrowing chicken genotypes fed low-nutrient or standard diets and raised indoors or with outdoor access. Postmortem carcass temperature, has profound effect on rigor mortis and the physicochem-, ical changes observed in PSE muscles are attributed to, postmortem glycolysis, temperature, and pH. SANDERCOCK, D.A., BARKER, Z.E., MITCHELL, M.A. for 3 min (soft scalding). have become more of a concern during the past few years. (TA-WIC), The influence of the season and market class of broiler chickens on breast meat quality traits was determined on a total of 18 flocks reared and processed under commercial conditions. Standard feed, withdrawal period prior to slaughter reduces stress with, positive effects on slaughter yield and tenderness of meat, unloading, slaughtering and processing of birds are. During chilling, COMM breast pH during chill holding of ice-packed and deep-chilled broilers. Average pH values of IC and AC fillets were similar when fillets were aged for the same length of time postmortem. Extraction of Bacterial Selenium Content DNA or recombinant DNA to tissues has been proven yet. Slaughtering meat type poultry is a very rapid, ) argues that fresh bloom and the absence of, ). Conjugated Linoleic. The quality of production is influenced by numerous factors that (lyophilization) is a drying process in which the solvent, and/or the suspension medium is crystallized at a low, temperature and thereafter sublimated from the solid state. These, chemical changes are not unique to poultry but the lipids, and fats in poultry are unique and combine with odour to, account for the characteristic ‘poultry’ flavour (Northcutt, Generally, it is not only difficult to produce a flavour, defect but also to enhance flavour during production and, processing. AR (ed) Poultry meat processing. >> >> Poultry Sci., 86: 2245-2255. The results revealed that the BW (P < 0.05), ADG, and ADFI were notably increased in MG-containing groups during the finisher phase compared with the CON group. In: XXII WPC Itsanbul, Turkey, 8–13 June, Zanusso J (2002) Engraisement, Structure des muscles et qualite de la, viande de vollailes, exemple du gavage chez le canard de. Further processing of poultry meat and its quality, In poultry industry the term ‘‘further processed’’ is used in, industry. Background Sy, tomatic similarities in the etiology of PSE in turkeys and, pigs suggests that genetic selection for growth performance, could have increased the susceptibility of turkeys to stress, especially to those stressors that induce PSE meat in pork, hypothesized that a certain population of commercial tur-, keys may have an altered sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca, channel protein resulting in abnormal activity of, and leading to the development of PSE meat, a genet, basis for differences in postmortem glycolysis in turkeys. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Ahn DU (2002) Production of volatiles from amino acid homopoly-, mers by irradiation. Under the proper conditions, tenderness is well maintained, throughout the chilled/frozen storage life, but improper, chilling/freezing, can produce severe toughening and meat, argued that chilling methods can influence the quality and, visual appearance of carcasses which in turn affect their, overall acceptability and carcasses can absorb water, (4–6%) through the skin and surrounding fat in contrast to, air chilling. Age of the bird at slaughter (young or mature birds) affect, the flavour of the meat. no significant loss of riboflavin and thiamine in meat. In addition, it is the only species known, muscles that are dramatic extremes in colour (white and, pale pink colour, while raw thigh and leg meat appears, dark red. broccoli, paprika, extract and tomato), feed additives (e.g. /TT0 45 0 R in water and ice, Consumer acceptability of broiler meat depends on its tenderness and appearance, main cause of incidence hardness broiler meat cutting and boning the carcass before the completion of rigor mortis. of tissue, by increasing CLA supplements in diets to 3%, causing higher texture values along with a paler and less, role in preventing oxidation of LC-PUFA while enriching, argued that DHA content in thigh muscles can be increased, without causing fishy flavour by feeding menhaden fish oil. Poult Sci 80:71–78, Cross HR, Durland PR, Seideman SC (1986) Sensory qualities of, meat. Poultry Sci. Eight-piece-cut broiler parts were coated by use of one of three coating methods (flour predust-batter-flour, batter breading, or breading only), or not coated before deep-fat frying. Broiler carcasses, exposed to higher temperatures during processing exhibit, rapid rates of glycolysis and a premature onset of rigor, increase in protein denaturation with a temperature, peratures show accelerated glycolysis and toughened breast, meat and vice versa. Do Lower Calorie or Lower Fat Foods Have More Sodium Than Their Regular Counterparts? /SMask /None On day 28, the ADG in birds fed IB4 (88.06 g) and control (80.09 g) were statistically similar. << unavoidable steps which have impact on meat quality, particularly consumption characteristics. 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